Jeoloji Mühendisleri Odası

Session Topics

1. 75th Anniversary Special Thanksgiving Session: Esen Arpat

Burhan Erdoğan

Ali Esen Arpat was born in 1937. He completed his secondary and high school education at Saint Joseph High School. He graduated from İstanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology in 1961.

Between 1961-1979, he served for 13 years at the MTA Institute, except for 2 years of military service and 3 years of graduate education at Stanford University in the  USA. During this time, he worked primarily as a field geologist in various parts of Turkey. He held administrative positions such as Head of the Department of Basic Research and Technical Assistant to the General Manager. In this period, he brought project-style work to the MTA Institute and contributed to finding solutions to scientific problems. He has enabled paleontologists and field geologists to study the North Anatolian Fault in camps equipped with a thin section workshop to stereoscopes and microscopes. He pioneered the effective use of aerial photographs in the production of geological maps at the MTA.

Ali Esen Arpat revealed the route of the Eastern Anatolian Fault with the help of aerial photographs in 1974 and determined the seismic activity of this fault by establishing micro earthquake seismographs in Sivrice together with MIT professor Nafi Toksöz. After resigning from MTA Institute in 1979, he continues to work in geosciences as a company partner in the private sector.

Between 1998 and 2010, he gave regular lectures on Earthquake Geology and Geodynamics at Boğaziçi University, Department of Geophysics.

Starting from 1973 until 2013, he participated in the delimitation of Turkey`s maritime jurisdiction areas as a geoscience expert.

We look forward to your papers for the 75th anniversary special thanksgiving session.

2. Regional Geology - Tectonics

Erdin Bozkurt, Bora Rojay

The continental fragments, which comprise Turkey, were located on the passive and active margins of the oceans in the last 600 million years. Continuing plate movements have resulted in the exposure of different rock types of varying ages in Anatolia. In this respect, Anatolia provides an excellent laboratory for studies on tectonics and regional geology. As conveners of the “Regional Geology - Tectonics” session we invite you to submit the results of your geological and geophysical studies in Turkey and its vicinity. The “Regional Geology - Tectonics” session has a wide scope and includes all field-based stratigraphy, ophiolite-mélange, paleomagnetism, paleontology, structural, petrology and isotope studies and their applications to other geological fields. The session is geared towards a better understanding of the geology of Turkey and the neighbouring regions.

3. Environmental Geology

Alper Baba, Harun Aydın

The success of many of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs; Agenda 2030) require one of the study areas of geology to better management of natural resources (water, soil, minerals, energy, etc.) and understanding of Earth processes (environmental changes, geological hazards, etc.). Environmental Geology, which examines the interaction between humans and the geological environment, is an essential branch of Geology that identifies, eliminates, and prevents natural- and human-induced environmental problems with an interdisciplinary approach. It is essential that your contribution to this organized session with oral or poster presentations to share information about the studies carried out in the field of Environmental Geology in the world and raise awareness about the importance of the subject, to make connections between decision makers and geoscientists, and to engage the earth science community in the SDGs and help achieve these goals. The main topics to be covered in the Environmental Geology session Sustainable Development Goals and cGeology:

  • Innovative methods for the detection and removal of soil pollution and groundwater contamination,
  • Current and innovative methods for examining the environmental impacts of mining activities,
  • The role of Environmental Geology and innovative applications in the selection of hazardous and domestic waste landfills,
  • Risk assessment studies on natural disasters,
  • Analysis of environmental impacts of engineering structures,
  • Determination of pollutant transport and influencing processes in environmental media,
  • Geological studies in Environmental Impact Assessment,
  • Cumulative Environmental Impact Assessment,
  • Geological sequestration of greenhouse gases,
  • Geologic processes affecting climate change,
  • Effects of altered climate and hydrology on geological systems.

4. Precious and Semi-Precious Stones

Meltem Gürbüz, Koray Sözeri, Çiğdem Lüle

The 74th Geological Congress of Turkey with the “Natural Disasters” theme will be held between 11th-15th of April, 2022. This year, the congress will host “Precious and Semi-Precious Stones Session” for the fifth time. The first session of Precious and Semi-Precious Stones was held during the 70th Congress presented 9 oral and 4 posters. In the 71st Congress, there were 9 oral and 1 poster; in 72nd 7 oral and 3 posters and in the 73rd 13 oral and 1 poster presentations.

Gemstones have attracted human beings throughout their existance and been recognized as the subject matter of gemology by Europe and North America since the beginning of the 20th century, then in Turkey in the last two decades. Gemology may be classified as a dicipline of mineralogy which is one of the main branches of earth sciences. The reseach areas of gemology include; formation of gem minerals and organic gem materials, their natural occurences, mining and fashioning, along side of separation of natural gems from synthetic and simulants. Modern gemological research focuses on gemstone treatments that are routinely applied to gem materials in the global gem market and regularly informs the gem and jewelry trade via publications.

Additional to the above subjects, the 74th Geological Congress of Turkey aims to include archaeogemology, forensic gemology, precious and semi-precious stone mining and mining regulations in Turkey, importance of gemstones in Turkish jewelry trade, marketing, branding and related ethics. Your participation with an oral or a poster presentation in our session that brings increasing numbers of gemologists, gem and jewelry market participants together will enhance the value and the importance of the congress.

5. Marine, Lake, and Coastal Geology: Marine Geohazards and Sustainable Blue Economy

Namık Çağatay, Heidrun Kopp, Demet Biltekin, Özden İleri

Marine geohazards include earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, submarine mass movements (landslides, turbidity currents), fluid activity and migrating bedforms. Some marine geohazards are human- induced and some othersare cascading and cumulative events. Especially, earthquakes, submarine landslides and tsunamis cause big losses of life and property in coastal areasusually with a high population density, and destruction of communicationcables, pipes and other engineering structures on the seafloor. Mapping of thegeological features such as active fauls, active volcanoes, potentialmass-failure areas, mud volcanoes and diapirs, gas chimneys, and gas hydrate occurrences and their monitoring are important for risk assessment andmitigation strategies, and hence for a sustainable blue economy.

In recent years, there have been significant technological developments encompassing seafloor mapping, sub-seafloor imaging, monitoring, sampling and analyses of geological structures that could induce marine geohazards. Studies involving the use of these technologies are of out most importance for disaster mitigation and hence, the sustainable development of countries such as Turkey where most coastal areas are under marine geohazard risk. The objective of this session is to provide a scientific platform forpresentation and discussion of studies on mapping and monitoring of hazard ous geological structures, investigation of the geological records of past events, and disaster mitigation and management of future events.

6. Natural Disasters

6a. Geologic/Hydrologic Disasters

Okan Tüysüz, Şükrü Ersoy, Fetullah Arık, Müge Akın, Akın Kürçer, Oktay Gökçe

Earthquakes, landslides, floods, sinkholes and similar natural (geological and* hydrogeological) disasters are events in which communities are under threat. If they occur, local response may be insufficientor limited, the mobilization of national resources is usually needed, and* theycause significant loss of life and property.

Improper land use, irregular urban/rural planning andconstruction, the increasing concentration of the population in hazardousareas, lack of legislation an d/o r inadequate implementation, unpreparedsociety and organizations, inappropriate use of resources, climate change, thedestruction of forests a nd biodiversity, increasing demand for drinking an dirrigation water, environmental destruction such as erosion, desertification, and similar factors increase the risks, in case a hazard turns i nto a disasterevent.

Our country is frequently exposed to various geological a ndhydrogeological events, especially earthquakes, a nd these natural events canturn i nto disasters because risk-reducing measures are absent o r not enough.

We invite all geoscientists having duties an dresponsibilities at all stages of disaster management to contribute to thisspecial session focusing on issues related to geological a nd hydrologicalnatural disasters.

6b. Meteorological Disasters

Murat Ercanoğlu, Gülseren Dağdelenler, Kasım Koçak

Meteorological disasters, which constitute an important part of natural disasters, include disaster types such as heavy rains, floods, drought, frost, landslide, avalanche, lightning,* forest* fires,* hot* and* cold* air* waves,* caused* directly* or* indirectly* by* meteorological* conditions.* In* parallel* with* the* different* meteorological* conditions* and* changes* throughout* the* world* and* in* Turkey,* considering* the* geological* and* geographical* characteristics,* meteorological* disasters* occur* frequently* and* can* cause* significant* loss* of* life* and* property.* On* the* other* hand,* it* is* expected* that* climate* change* and* global* warming,* the* negative* effects* of* which* are* felt* more* and* more* day* by* day,* will* lead* to* an* increase* in* the* frequency* and* severity* of* meteorological* natural* disasters.* Thus,* your* scientific* contributions* to* the* session* on* Meteorological* Disasters* in* the* 74th* Geological* Congress* of* Turkey* will* enable* to* reveal* current* trends,* new* technologies* and* analysis* techniques* on* the* subject.* Thank* you* for* your* support* and* contribution* towards* this* goal.

6c.* Forests,* Deforestation,* and* Disasters

Ünal* Akkemik,* Erdoğan* Atmış,* Hüsrev* Özkara

In* the* Mediterranean* Basin,* forest* fires* are* an* inevitable* event* and* thousands* of* hectares* of* forest* areas* are* damaged* every* year.* According* to* statistical* data,* 9* out* of* 10* fires* are* caused* by* humans.* Increasing* population,* human* pressure* on* forests,* decrease* in* humidity* and* increase* in* temperature* due* to* global* climate* change,* problems* in* forestry* policies* and* legislation* are* the* main* reasons* that* increase* forest* fires,* and* the* amount* of* burned* area* per* fire* is* increasing* every* year.* The* amount* of* burned* area* in* July-August* 2021,* on* the* other* hand,* exceeded* all* statistics* and* reached* the* size* of* a* disaster,* and* a* total* of* 160* thousand* hectares* of* land,* of* which* approximately* 130* thousand* hectares* were* forests,* was* burned.* Floods* and* forest* fires* have* reached* the* extent* of* disasters* today,* where* deforestation* and* pressures* on* forests* are* increasing.* Therefore,* within* the* scope* of* disasters;* The* issue* of* forests,* deforestation* and* disasters* should* be* discussed* and* road* maps* should* be* created* by* scientists,* chambers* and* non-governmental* organizations* by* discussing* all* aspects* of* the* issue.

6d.* Biological* Disasters

Erol* Sarı,* Selma* Metintaş,* Muharrem* Balcı,* Bahadır* Tercan

Biological* disasters* include* scenarios* where* diseases* or* toxins* caused* by* living* organisms* or* their* products* result* in* a* wide* range* of* illness,* disability* or* death* in* human,* animal* and* plant* life.* Such* disasters* occur* in* natural* form* at* epidemic* or* pandemic* level* of* existing,* emerging* or* re-emerging* infectious* diseases,* or* in* human-made* form* as* a* result* of* deliberate* use* of* disease-causing* agents.* Biological* disasters* are* natural* disasters* that* can* be* occured* geographically,* on* a* regional* or* global* scale,* and* can* directly* or* indirectly* affect* one* or* more* living* communities.

The* mucilage* event* in* the* Marmara* Sea,* which* has* turned* into* a* natural* disaster* in* terms* of* both* the* duration* of* its* effect* and* the* area* it* covers,* and* the* COVID* 19* epidemic,* which* affected* the* whole* world,* are* important* current* biological* disasters* that* should* be* addressed* from* this* perspective.

We* invite* valuable* researchers* to* our* session* to* present* data* on* biological* disasters* and* biological* disaster* management* in* Turkey* and* in* the* World,* and* to* discuss* the* results,* at* the* 74th* Turkish* Geological* Congress* biological* disasters* session.

6e.* Cosmic* Disasters

Yıldırım* Güngör,* Alper* Şengül

The* world has* been* exposed* to* Cosmic* attacks* since* its* formation.* In* most* of* these* attacks,* the* world* has* suffered* great* destruction* and* a* large* part* of* living* species* has* disappeared.* When* viewed* from* Earth* into* space,* everything* seems* to* be* fine.* However,* the* universe* is* an* extremely* dangerous* place.* A* supernova* explosion* that* will* affect* the* Earth,* gamma* rays,* the* loss* of* the* effect* of* the* earth`s* magnetic* field,* or* an* asteroid* impact* can* cause* all* or* most* of* life* on* earth* to* be* lost.* Between* 20* and* 40* tons* of* meteoric* material* hits* the* Earth* every* day.* However,* they* are* blocked* by* the* atmosphere* and* descend* to* earth* in* the* form* of* grains* of* dust* or* sand.* However,* if* a* large* asteroid* hits* the* Earth,* it* can* cause* great* destruction.* The* asteroid* impact* in* Siberia* in* 1908* released* several* megatons* of* energy* and* destroyed* about* 250* square* kilometers* of* forest.* If* such* a* collision* takes* place* in* a* big* city,* great* loss* of* life* can* occur.* In* the* fight* against* disasters,* we* need* to* take* into* account* not* only* domestic* but* also* extraterrestrial* dangers.* For* this* reason,* Cosmic* disaster* risks* should* be* added* to* Risk* Management* studies.* We* look* forward* to* the* contributions* of* you,* esteemed* scientists,* on* this* subject.

6f.* Disaster* Management

Süleyman* Pampal,* Muammer* Tün,* Bahattin* Murat* Demir,* Hasan* Gürhan* İlgen

Disaster* management* is* defined* as* all* the* multi-dimensional* and* multi-disciplinary* studies* that* determine* the* scientific,* technical,* administrative* and* legal* studies* that* need* to* be* done* before,* during* and* after* the* disaster,* enable* an* effective* application* when* an* event* is* encountered,* and* improve* the* existing* system* in* the* light* of* the* lessons* obtained* from* each* event.* Geosciences* have* important* duties* in* all* stages* of* disaster* management,* especially* in* mitigation* studies.* In* this* session,* it* is* aimed* to* explain* the* studies* of* earth* sciences,* which* have* various* responsibilities* at* every* stage* of* a* comprehensive* disaster* management,* with* examples* of* the* studies* they* have* done* before,* during* and* after* the* disaster,* and* to* examine* and* discuss* the* contributions* of* earth* sciences* to* disaster* management.

6g.* Climate* and* Climate* Change

Nehir* Varol,* Koray* Yılmaz

Climate* change,* which* is* considered* to* be* one* of* the* major* challenges* facing* humanity* today,* makes* both* societies* and* nature* more* fragile.* Especially* the* Mediterranean* Region,* where* our* country* is* located* as* well,* is* among* the* regions* that* will* be* mostly* affected* by* climate* change* in* the* world.* It* is* estimated* that* the* effects* of* climate* change* will* be* experienced* even* more* in* our* country* due* to* ever* increasing* energy* and* food* demands* paralleled* with* the* increasing* population.* The* effects* of* climate* change* also* increase* the* risk* of* natural* hazards* including* increasing* temperatures,* melting* glaciers,* rising* sea* levels,* drought,* floods,* water* scarcity,* forest* fires,* tornadoes* which* then* likely* turn* into* disasters* due* to* industrialization* and* population* density* and* construction.* Therefore,* a* better* understanding* of* the* effects* of* climate* change* on* natural* disasters* experienced* in* the* past* and/or* expected* to* occur* in* the* future* gains* importance* for* the* development* of* adaptation* studies* needed* to* make* societies* ready* and* resilient* to* these* disasters.

Within* the* scope* of* this* session,* climate* change;* natural* disasters* (avalanche/flash* flood/flood/drought/fire/landslide* etc.),* groundwater* level* decline/ground* subsidence,* sea* level* changes/saline* water* intrusion* and* erosion* and* their* effects* on* aquatic* systems* and* ecology* (lake,* marsh,* wetland,* etc.),* water* use* (for* drinking* /agricultural/industrial/energy* sectors),* green* water/grey* water/water* footprint,* natural* solutions* and* risk* reduction* studies* against* the* effects* of* climate* change,* cities* and* society* resistant* to* climate* change,* green/renewable* energy,* carbon* capture/storage* studies* will* be* evaluated* and* discussed.

7.* Natural* Building* Stones

Atiye* Tuğrul,* Bahadır* Yavuz,* Luis* Lopes,* Murat* Yılmaz

Dear* Earth* Scientists,

The* importance* of* natural* stones* and* aggregates* which* are* the* locomotive* of* the* mining* sector* in* our* country* that* takes* the* first* place* in* the* export,* will* be* possible* by* increasing* the* number* of* scientific* researches* in* this* field.* In* this* context,* it* is* important* to* investigate* the* potential* reserves* and* efficient* production* and* evaluation* of* these* reserves* in* our* country.

In* this* session,* scientific* research* on* natural* building* stones* and* aggregates,* which* have* a* special* importance* for* Geological* Engineers,* will* be* presented* and* the* following* topics* will* be* covered.

Natural* Building* Stones:

-* Aggregates* (concrete,* asphalt,* ballast,* embankments* materials,* armor* stones* etc.)

-* Dimensional* stones* (limestone,* marble,* travertine* &* onyx,* granite* and* other* hard* * stones,* pavement* &* curb* stones* and* decorative* stones)* and* geological* parameters* effecting* production* efficiency* and* usability

-* The* utilization* of* leftover* materials* in* stone* quarries

-* Deterioration* problems* and* conservation* methods* of* natural* stones* used* in* archaeological* &* historical* buildings* and* engineering* structures

We* hope* that* by* bringing* together* researchers,* engineers,* company* representatives,* decision* makers* and* students* working* on* Natural* Building* Stones* on* the* same* platform,* more* widespread* and* beneficial* communication* and* cooperation* in* scientific* and* technical* terms* will* be* achieved.* Theefore,* we* invite* you* to* be* together* at* the* 74th* Turkey* Geology* Congress.

Best* Regards

8.* Industrial* Minerals* and* Rare* Earth* Elements

Demet* Kıran* Yıldırım,* Haşim* Ağrılı

Natural* resources* have* an* indispensable* place* in* human* and* social* life.* Almost* all* of* the* tools* and* equipment* that* make* life* functional* are* obtained* from* natural* resources,* especially* mines.* Industrial* Raw* Materials* can* be* found* in* rocks* as* well* as* directly* in* the* earth`s* crust* as* minerals.

In* many* important* fields,* we* need* industrial* minerals* directly* or* indirectly* in* the* tools* and* in* equipment* we* use.* Cement,* ceramics,* glass,* refractory,* chemical* industries,* building* blocks* and* materials* in* particular;* Filling* materials,* natural* dyes,* percolators,* insulators,* abrasives,* precious* stones,* ornamental* stones,* drilling* mud,* smelters,* absorbers,* fertilizers,* industrial* minerals* are* important* inputs* of* the* electronics* and* optics* industry.

Our* country* is* among* the* richest* countries* in* the* world* in* terms* of* mineral* diversity* due* to* its* geological* belt.* More* than* 70* minerals* are* produced* in* Turkey.* Turkey* is* especially* important* in* terms* of* boron,* halite,* sodium* sulfate,* magnesite,* feldspar,* quartzite-quartz* sand,* kaolin,* bauxite* formations* and* production.* Depending* on* these* raw* materials,* glass,* ceramics,* refractory* and* detergent* industries* have* developed* and* most* of* the* raw* material* needs* are* met* domestically.

With* advences* in* technology,* the* demand* for* raw* materials* constantly* rises* with* new* and* different* properties* and* usage.* The* use* of* rare* metals* in* the* material* industry* as* an* alloying* element* in* terms* of* providing* resistance* to* heat,* corrosion* and* acid* and* their* use* in* the* electrical* and* electronic* industry* due* to* their* conductivity* have* an* important* place.* The* need* for* high-tech* materials* significantly* increases* the* production* of* these* metals.* Raw* material* formations* such* as* lithium,* Rare* Earth* Elements,* rutile* and* ilmenite* used* in* the* production* of* advanced* technology* products* are* known* and* research* and* research* studies* are* continuing.

Our* country* also* has* an* important* potential* in* rare* metallic* ores* which* can* be* considered* as* advanced* technology* raw* materials.

9.* Future* Geoscientists

Bora* Uzel,* Ulaş* Avşar,* Şükran* Açıkel,* Laura* Gregory

Earth* science* is* spread* over* a* wide* spectrum,* and* many* of* our* undergraduate* students* work* on* projects* in* different* disciplines* within* this* spectrum,* while* they* are* still* undergraduate* students,* and* improve* their* backgrounds* in* different* areas* of* interest.* We* are* pleased* to* invite* future* geoscientists* to* the* 74th* Geological* Congress* of* Turkey* to* present* their* work* to* the* earth* sciences* community.

During* the* “Future* Geoscientists* Session”,* students* will* have* the* opportunity* to* present* their* undergraduate* studies* to* the* earth* sciences* community,* benefit* from* the* professional* experiences* of* the* participants* and* their* contributions* to* the* session,* and* will* also* have* the* opportunity* to* meet* their* colleagues.* As* session* moderators,* we* will* be* honored* to* see* both* young* colleagues* and* all* geoscientists* with* their* knowledge* and* experience* to* contribute* to* the* work* of* our* young* colleagues* with* us,* in* the* "Future* Geoscientists* Session.

Papers* should* be* submitted* with* the* names* of* both* the* student* and* the* advisor.* Students* can* share* their* original* projects/research* that* they* have* been* working* on,* either* as* an* oral* or* a* poster* presentation,* by* following* the* rules* specified* on* the* congress* webpage.

10.* Planetary* Geology

Nurgül* Çelik* Balcı,* Ersin* Göğüş,* Namık* Aysal

The* Planetary* Geology* session* will* cover* observational,* experimental* and* theoretical* works* aimed* at* understanding* the* different* geological* processes* (volcanic,* tectonic,* or* the* development* of* volcano-tectonic* structures)* by* particularly* rocky* planets* in* the* Solar* System,* including* the* Earth,* and* other* events* affected* by* these* processes* (e.g.,* atmospheric* compositions).* Unraveling* the* geological* processes* experienced* by* the* rocky* planets* will* enable* us* to* better* understand* the* formation* of* the* Solar* System,* as* well* as* make* an* significant* and* valuable* contribution* to* the* understanding* of* structures* of* the* exoplanets.* In* this* period* when* we* witness* the* iconic* space* explorations* of* this* century,* geology,* which* will* be* the* basis* of* scientific* studies* that* will* begin* with* the* arrival* of* the* rock* samples* from* Mars* to* the* Earth,* is* the* key* to* constraining* processes* of* the* planet* in* addition* to* searching* sign* for* life.* This* session* aims* to* bring* together* scientists* from* planetary* geology* and* all* disciplines* associated* with* planetary* sciences* (eg,* cosmochemistry,* geomicrobiology* and* remote* sensing,* asteroid,* meteorite* geochemistry).* In* this* context,* we* invite* you* to* this* session* to* share* and* discuss* theoretical* models,* laboratory* experiments,* field* and* remote* sensing* studies* on* Earth,* Solar* System* objects* and* exoplanet* geology.

11.* Hydrogeology* and* Water* Resources* Management

Mehmet* Ekmekçi,* İrfan* Yolcubal,* Arzu* Fırat* Ersoy

Water* is* an* essential* natural* resource* for* all* life* on* earth.* Existence* or* scarcity* of* water* has* been* the* key* factor* that* has* determined* the* rise* and* fall* of* civilizations.* The* 21st* century,* an* era* of* rapid* changes* will* most* likely* experience* severe* problems* in* supplying* sufficient* water* of* good* quality* where* it* is* needed* due* to* increase* and* mobility* of* the* population* as* well* as* the* natural* and* human-caused* alteration* on* surface* and* groundwater* resources* in* addition* to* climate* change.* Today,* about* 800* million* people* on* the* planet* do* not* have* access* to* clean* and* safe* drinking* water,* while* more* than* 2.5* billion* people* suffer* from* the* lack* of* basic* sanitation.* Lack* of* proper* sanitation* and* hygiene* kills* about* 1.6* million* people* every* year.* The* projections* for* the* future* suggest* that* the* human* population* on* earth* will* increase* to* 9.6* billion* by* the* year* 2050,* which* means* an* even* greater* stress* on* water* resources* and* more* severe* problems* related* to* water* supply* and* sanitation* will* occur.* Water* resources* have* been* considered* as* an* economic* commodity* and* a* strategic* natural* resource* for* the* last* 40* years.* This* complicates* the* management* of* water* services.* With* the* effect* of* climate* change,* it* increases* the* tension* between* neighboring* countries* in* transboundary* watersheds.

Therefore,* it* is* important* to* focus* on* the* correct* water* policies* in* both* national* and* international* dimensions* and* to* carry* out* studies* on* this* issue.* In* this* session,* topics* related* to* hydrogeology,* water* resource* management,* water* policies,* natural* and* man-made* pollutants* affecting* water* will* be* discussed.* We* strongly* encourage* all* scientists* and* engineers* involved* in* water* to* submit* an* abstract* for* this* special* session.

12.* Geodynamics

Oğuz* Göğüş,* Hans* Thybo

The* geodynamics* session* of* this* year’s* geological* congress* will* invite* contributions* on* geodynamical* processes* and* predictive* numerical/analog* modeling* at* every* scale* such* as* subduction* (ocean* and* continental),* plume* impingement,* delamination,* convective* removal/instabilities/dripping,* rifting,* collision,* obduction,* fold-thrust* belt* formations.* The* purpose* of* this* session* is* to* bring* together* different* viewpoints* on* these* first* order* geodynamic* mechanisms* as* well* as* their* potential* impacts* on* the* evolution* of* surface* (dynamic)* topography,* anisotropy,* magmatism,* metamorphism,* and* seismicity.

13.* Geophysical* Methods* and* Geological* Applications

Hülya* Kurt,* Emin* Ulugergerli

Considering* multidisciplinary* approaches,* we* invite* all* geoscientists* to* contribute* to* the* topics* listed* below,* but* not* limited* to,* to* solve* complex* geological* problems.* Our* main* subjects* are* seismology,* seismic,* potential* fields,* electrical* and* electromagnetic* methods.* In* addition,* we* invite* you* to* submit* your* studies* that* include* the* latest* developments* in* analog* and* digital* modelling* studies* and* device* designs.

14.* Geological* Applications* of* Geodesy

Bahadır* Aktuğ

With* the* advent* of* space-based* absolute* and* relative* positioning* systems,* geodetic* monitoring* of* crustal* deformation* has* become* an* indispensable* part* of* earth* science* research* studies.* Geodesy,* defined* as* the* science* of* determining* the* position,* shape* and* gravity* of* the* earth* through* the* measurements,* is* used* in* a* wide* range* of* earth* science* applications* including* but* not* limited* to* determining* plate* rotations,* interior* deformation* of* plates,* slip* rates* along* faults,* long* term* strain* accumulation,* resolving* fault* geometry* and* slips* after* major* earthquakes,* variation* of* the* atmospheric* water* vapor* and* total* electron* content.* In* addition* to* the* fundamental* earth* science* research,* geodesy* provides* the* most* accurate* positioning* methods* and* precise* monitoring* of* engineering* structures* (buildings,* dams,* bridges* etc.).* We* would* like* to* invite* all* researches* to* contribute* to* our* session* with* their* valuable* research* which* makes* use* of* any* of* the* geodetic* methods* (GNSS,* InSAR,* deformation* monitoring,* etc.).

15.* Geomorphology* and* Morphotectonics

Cengiz* Yıldırım,* Tolga* Görüm,* Taylan* Sancar

Dear* Colleagues,

It* is* our* pleasure* to* invite* you* to* the* upcoming* geomorphology* session* will* be* held* on* the* 73rd* Geological* Congress* of* Turkey* at* General* Directorate* of* Mineral* Research* and* Exploration* Cultural* Center* from* April* 11-15,* 2022* in* Ankara/Turkey

Landforms* that* surround* us* are* the* result* of* the* interaction* between* geological* and* surface* processes.* Specifically,* the* interaction* between* the* tectonic* processes* and* surface* processes* shapes* the* characteristic* landforms.* These* landforms* may* allow* us* to* estimate* the* mechanism,* pattern,* history,* and* rate* of* tectonic* deformations.* * Turkey,* as* a* plate* boundary* country,* is* one* of* the* best* to* observe* these* interactions.* Northern* Anatolian* Mountains,* Central* Anatolian* Plateau,* Taurids,* Western* Anatolia,* Eastern* Anatolia* and* troughs* of* the* North* and* East* Anatolian* faults* are* major* morphotectonic* domains* of* Turkey.* Tectonic* geomorphology* investigations* in* these* domains* may* provide* information* about* large* scale* processes* such* as* orogenic* plateaus* or* mountain* ranges.* Also,* relative* tectonic* activity* assessment* of* a* relatively* smaller* scale* structure* such* as* an* individual* fault* delimits* a* mountain* front.* Today,* easy* access* to* the* high-resolution* remote* sensing* images* and* digital* elevation* models* and* open-source* morphotectonic* analysis* codes* provides* to* analyse* mechanism* and* pattern* of* deformation.* On* the* other* hand,* geochronological* methods* help* us* to* absolute* dating* of* deformed* geomorphic* features* and* contribute* our* estimations* about* the* history* and* rate* of* tectonic* deformations.* This* session* invites* all* the* scientists* with* proposals,* conclusions,* and* preliminary* results* of* the* local* and* regional* wide* range* of* studies,* including* mapping,* modelling* and* geochronology* of* tectonic* landforms* and* processes.

We* look* forward* to* welcoming* you* to* Ankara* in* April!

Best* Regards

16.* Geothermal* Energy

Hüseyin* Karakuş,* İbrahim* Akkuş,* Füsun* Tut* Haklıdır

Having* a* vital* resource* or* asset* for* countries* has* always* been* important* throughout* history.* Countries* that* protect* these* resources* and* use* them* correctly* have* enabled* their* countries* to* develop* and* prosper* with* the* surplus* values* ​​they* have* created.* In* this* respect,* in* conditions* where* the* use* of* renewable* energy* is* increasing* day* by* day* and* supported* by* the* 2050* European* Green* Agreement,* geothermal* energy* is* an* important* alternative* energy* source* for* our* country,* with* its* different* applications,* being* a* sustainable* and* safe* source.

In* the* geothermal* resource* exploration* studies* that* MTA* General* Directorate* started* in* 1960* and* was* active* in* the* whole* process,* the* years* 1970-1980* is* the* period* when* high* temperature* fields* were* discovered.* At* the* same* time,* this* period* was* the* impetus* for* accelerating* research* in* later* years.* The* commissioning* of* our* first* geothermal* power* plant* in* our* country* and* the* first* geothermal* residential* heating* applications* were* realized* in* the* 1980s.* The* 1990s,* in* which* research* gained* an* important* dimension,* was* the* period* when* private* enterprises* and* municipalities* for* geothermal* resources* with* high* potential* became* widespread,* and* a* turning* point* in* the* process.* Our* country* ranks* first* in* the* world* with* our* geothermal* installed* power* of* 1.663* MWe* as* of* 2021* and* a* direct* heating* capacity* of* 3828* MWt,* equivalent* to* approximately* 373,000* residences,* in* electricity* generation,* central* heating,* thermal* use* and* greenhouse* applications* of* geothermal* resources,* which* are* our* geological* richness* and* equity.* Capacity* building* activities* for* the* direct* and* indirect* utilization* of* geothermal* energy* are* still* ongoing.* In* such* a* process,* the* Geological* Congress* of* Turkey* is* an* environment* where* research* on* geothermal* energy,* developing* technological* information* and* new* approaches* will* be* shared,* problems* in* the* geothermal* sector* will* be* discussed,* and* innovative* solution* proposals* will* be* presented.* In* this* context,* in* our* geothermal* energy* session,* which* aims* to* bring* together* valuable* scientists,* researchers,* relevant* institutions* and* organizations,* universities,* local* governments,* professional* chambers* and* private* sector* representatives:

-* Processes* related* to* geothermal* resource,

-* Developing* the* use* of* innovative* perspectives* such* as* artificial* intelligence* with* technological* developments,

-* Geothermal* heat* pump* technologies,* underground* heat* storage* systems,

-* Geothermal* resource* use* and* management,

-* Geothermal* energy* -* environment,

-* Geothermal* resources* in* energy* strategy,

-* Education* in* geothermal,

-* Institutional,* administrative* structure,* technical* and* legal* problems,

-* Design,* project* management* and* financing* in* geothermal* investments.

We* would* like* to* express* that* we* would* be* pleased* to* see* all* industry* stakeholders* among* us,* while* inviting* all* scientists* and* experts* in* the* field* of* application* to* our* session,* where* practices,* approaches* are* shared* and* suggestions* are* evaluated* regarding* the* use* of* geothermal* energy* in* local* governments.

17.* Urban* Geology,* Engineering* Geology,* and* Geotechnics

Remzi* Karagüzel,* Nihat* Sinan* Işık,* Ergün* Tuncay

Engineering* Geology* plays* an* important* role* in* regulating* the* interactions* that* may* occur* between* the* environment* and* technical* attempts* related* to* the* ground.* It* aims* to* define,* digitize* and* coordinate* the* boundary* conditions* in* the* environment.* Engineering* Geology* examines,* evaluates* methods,* process* and* monitoring* options* of* the* applications* and* assists* the* design,* by* considering* the* professional* principles* of* the* science* of* geology.* Based* on* the* fact* that* it* is* impossible* to* prevent* natural* processes* in* the* earth`s* crust,* it* aims* to* manage* natural* hazards* without* turning* into* risks* and* to* acquire* natural* resources* in* the* most* appropriate* way* for* human* benefit.* Engineering* Geology* considers* the* safety* of* city* and* environmental* health.* It* supervises* the* integrated* impact* of* boundary* conditions* in* spatial* planning,* project* design* and* land* use.* In* other* words,* it* prioritizes* the* balance* between* protection-use* and* preservation-use.

In* Urban* Geology,* Engineering* Geology* and* Geotechnical* Session* of* 73rd* Geological* Congress* of* Turkey,* it* is* aimed* to* discuss,* present* and* share* of* experiences* related* to* creation* of* safe* cities,* investigation* of* the* interaction* between* geological* environment* and* the* technical* attempts,* ground* behavior* during* the* design,* construction* and* usage/maintenance* phases* of* engineering* projects.

As* the* Executive* Committee* of* the* Session,* we* are* excitedly* hoping* that* our* colleagues* in* the* public,* university* and* private* sectors* will* participate* in* the* Congress* with* or* without* paper.* In* this* way,* we* believe* that* you* will* contribute* to* universal* science* and* dissemination* of* engineering* geology* applications* and* we* wish* to* meet* in* Ankara* on* the* days* of* the* Congress.

18.* Quaternary* Studies

Tamer* Yiğit* Duman,* Ökmen* Sümer,* Mehmet* Akif* Sarıkaya

The* Quaternary* is* the* youngest* geological* period,* spanning* the* last* 2.6* million* years* of* the* Earth`s* history.* The* investigation* of* geological* events* that* developed* in* the* Quaternary* period* sheds* light* on* the* earlier* geological* eras.* The* most* characteristic* feature* of* the* Quaternary* is* climate* changes* expressed* in* glacial* and* inter-glacial* stages.* Therefore,* Quaternary* studies* help* us* to* understand* the* current* climate* changes* that* we* face* today.* Studies* in* Quaternary* are* interdisciplinary* in* its* nature,* where* scientists* from* various* branches* such* as* geography,* ecology,* meteorology,* climate* sciences,* environmental* sciences,* biology,* astronomy* and* mathematics* work* together.* In* line* with* the* main* theme,* natural* hazards,* of* the* 74th* Geological* Congress* of* Turkey,* the* participants* can* attend* to* multidisciplinary* presentations* in* this* session.* Climate* changes,* geomorphology,* fluvial,* lacustrine* and* glacial* geology,* state-of-art* dating* studies,* coastal* and* marine* geology* and* speleology* are* the* some* of* the* main* topics* of* this* session.

19.* Cultural* Geology* and* Geological* Heritage

Nizamettin* Kazancı,* Hülya* İnaner,* Namık* Yalçın

Cultural* Geology* deals* with* the* study* of* geological* events,* processes* and* raw* materials* that* affect* the* initiation* and* development* of* culture,* while* Geological* Heritage* deals* with* fossil* assemblages,* stratigraphic* sequences,* landforms,* caves,* rock* groups,* etc.,* which* are* traces* of* important* geological* events* or* processes* in* the* past,* and* their* preservation.* The* session* covering* two* close* issues* together* is* open* to* geoscientists* and* researchers* of* Archeology,* Soil,* Nature* Conservation,* Geopark,* Art* history,* Ancient* mines,* and* Natural* Stones.* In* addition,* the* results* of* the* investigations* that* emphasize* the* importance* of* geodiversity* and* highlight* the* geological* protection* in* order* to* reduce* natural* disaster* damages* are* welcome.* The* session* aims* to* create* a* comprehensive* scientific* discussion* platform* on* topics* of* nature,* culture,* geological* conservation* and* geodiversity.

20.* Magmatism* and* Magmatic* Processes

Abidin* Temel,* Özgür* Karaoğlu

Magmatic* and* volcanic* systems* involve* a* range* of* dynamic* processes* that* govern* magma* generation,* ascent,* emplacement,* and* eruption.* Considering* that* at* least* 70* percent* of* Turkey,* which* has* been* intensely* affected* by* the* Alpine-Himalayan* orogenic* system,* is* covered* with* igneous* rocks,* it* becomes* clear* once* again* that* new* findings* in* magmatism* studies* will* provide* important* leaps* in* our* understanding* of* the* Earth.* This* session* deals* with* documentation* of* the* geochemistry,* petrology,* radiometric* dating,* its* geodynamic* manifestations,* and* modelling* of* magmatic* plumping* systems,* on* Earth* and* in* the* Solar* System.* The* focus* is* on* advancing* our* understanding* on* any* type* of* magmatic* province* linked* to* plate* tectonics,* genesis* of* magma* in* the* lithosphere,* active* and* non-active* volcanoes,* and* on* the* implications* for* hazards.* We* hereby* also* invite* researchers* implementing* multidisciplinary* contributions* -* both* observational* (seismology,* remote-sensing,* geobarometry* etc.)* and* modelling* (computational,* analogue* etc.)* -* on* magma* transport* in* the* crust.

21.* Veteran* Geological* Engineers

Ayhan* Kösebalaban,* Yavuz* Tanrısever

Geology* is* based* on* observations* and* cannot* be* learned* just* from* books.* The* profession* is* basically* learned* in* the* field* through* master* apprentice* relations* from* the* knowledge* passed* on* from* an* Experienced* Geologist.

Taking* this* reality* into* consideration,* retired* geological* engineers* who* have* contributed* to* the* geology* of* Turkey* are* asked* to* share* their* knowledge* and* experiences* with* the* young* generation* of* geological* engineers.* Experienced* Geologists* are* invited* to* talk* about* the* problems* they* encountered* and* the* measures* they* took* to* solve* them.

In* particular* speakers* are* invited* to* talk* about* their* personal* experiences,* studies* on* determination* and* definition* of* active* faults* and* nature* originated* disasters,* geotechnical* studies* of* important* engineering* structures* like* bridge,* dam,* thermic* power* plants* etc.,* studies* on* mineral* deposits,* oil* explorations,* water* resources,* environment* etc.* * Speakers* are* also* asked* to* talk* about* how* and* when* geological* studies* relating* to* natural* resources* forming* the* basis* of* the* industry* in* Turkey* started* and* developed.

22.* Metallic* Ore* Deposits

İlkay* Kuşcu,* Özcan* Yiğit,* Gülcan* Bozkaya,* Tolga* Oyman

Dear* colleagues,* we* would* like to invite you to participate* and* contribute* to* the* “Metallic* Ore* Deposits”* session of* the 74th* Turkish* Geology* Congress* to* be* held* in* Ankara* on* April 11-15,* 2022.* Diverse* ore* deposits* and* prospects* occur* in* metallogenic belts* in* Turkey* located* within* the* Tethyan* Metallogenic* Belt* and* provide* significant* contributions* to* the* economy* of* the* country.* The* purpose* of* this* session* is* to* understand* the* origin* of* the* ore* forming* systems* in* different* tectonic* terranes* of* the* country,* and* to* present* new* mineral* exploration* techniques/methods* and* research* to* find* undiscovered* orebodies.* We* would* like* to* invite* contributions* from* all* researchers* and* experts* interested* in* this* topic.

23.* Metamorphism* and* Metamorphic* Processes

Osman* Candan,* Ali* Polat,* Erdinç* Yiğitbaş

It* has* been* more* than* 200* years* since* the* first* use* of* the* term* “metamorphic”* to* describe* recrystallized* rocks.* Following* their* burial* processes* in* different* tectonic* settings,* rocks* undergo* various* degrees* of* metamorphism* that* is* followed* mainly* by* their* uplift* through* different* tectonic* mechanisms.* There* has* been* a* significant* progress* in* recent* years* in* determination* of* type* of* metamorphism* and* its* grade.* Recent* advances* in* analytical* techniques* have* triggered* new* interest* in* the* study* of* metamorphism* and* metamorphic* processes* in* the* world.* Despite* the* presence* of* various* metamorphic* belts* in* our* country,* they* have* not* received* enough* attention* from* the* national* researchers.* Therefore,* it* is* important* for* the* young* researchers* to* see* the* attendance* and* presentations* of* senior* researchers* in* this* traditional* conference* so* that* they* can* gain* new* insights* into* metamorphic* petrology.* We* hope* to* see* the* presentations* of* new* studies* in* Turkey* and* surrounding* countries* by* national* and* international* researchers* in* the* session* of* “Metamorphism* and* Metamorphic* Processes”,* with* an* objective* that* can* lead* to* the* establishment* of* multi-disciplinary* research* groups.

24.* Neotectonics,* Seismicity,* and* Seismotectonics

Orhan* Tatar,* Erhan* Altunel,* Erman* Özsayın,* Bülent* Kaypak

The* Eastern* Mediterranean* Region,* also* includes* our* country,* is* one* of* the* most* actively* deforming* regions* in* the* World.* * With* the* onset* of* the* neotectonic* period,* the* effective* stress* regimes* in* the* region* reveal* local* areas,* especially* in* the* Anatolian* block,* that* show* specific* deformations.* * The* North* Anatolian* Fault* Zone* (NAFZ),* East* Anatolian* Fault* Zone* (EAFZ),* Dead* Sea* Fault* Zone* (DSFZ)* and* normal* faults* in* Western* Anatolia* are* the* major* neotectonic* structures* in* our* country* and* its* vicinity.

Existence* of* neotectonic* structures* causes* intense* earthquake* activity* in* such* regions.* * Both* geological* and* geomorphological* findings,* and* historical* and* instrumental* earthquake* records* show* that* destructive* earthquakes* have* occurred* on* the* neotectonic* structures* in* the* region.* * It* is* inevitable* that* destructive* earthquakes* causing* great* damage* and* life* losses* will* occur* in* the* future* on* active* faults* in* different* parts* of* our* country.* * However,* it* is* possible* to* prevent* or* minimize* damage* and* loss* of* life* with* the* increase* of* multidisciplinary* researches* on* the* investigation* of* active* tectonic* structures.* * The* most* important* stage* of* this* is* to* understand* the* behavior* of* the* tectonic* structures* that* are* the* source* of* earthquakes* in* our* country,* to* determine* the* fault* parameters* as* much* as* possible* and* to* reveal* their* seismotectonic* properties* at* different* scales.* * In* this* context,* we* invite* our* colleagues* who* conducted* researches* on* Neotectonics,* Seismicity* and* Seismotectonics* in* and* around* our* country* to* participate* the* 74th* Geological* Congress* of* Turkey,* which* will* be* held* on* April* 11-15,* 2022* and* share* their* results.

25.* Ophiolite* and* Mélange

Osman* Parlak,* Alastair* H.F.* Robertson

Ophiolites, on-land fragments of oceanic lithosphere, are the key* to* understanding* processes* involved* in* the* evolution* of* oceanic* basins. Ophiolites* display variable* internal* structure,* pseudostratigraphy,* geochemical* composition* and* feature* in* many* different* orogenic* belts* of* different* ages.* They* are* interpreted* to* have* formed* in* a* wide* range* of* tectonic* settings,* including* mid-ocean* ridge,* back-arc* and* fore-arc.* Numerous* models* exist* for* oceanic* lithosphere* generation,* metamorphic* sole* and* melange* formation,* tectonic* emplacement* and* ore* genesis.

The* aims* of* this* session* are* to discuss* (i)* recent* scientific* advances* on* ophiolites* of* Tethyan* belt* and* surroundings,* (ii)* mantle* melting,* melt/rock* interaction* and* mineralization,* (iii)* metamorphic* processes* during* formation* and* emplacement* and* (iv)* melange* genesis.* We* warmly* welcome* a* large* number* of* scientists* from* all* over* the* world* for* fruitful* discussions* on* this* topic.

26.* Paleoclimatology

Funda* Akgün,* Mine* Sezgül* Kayseri* Özer,* Nurdan* Yavuz

Dear* Geoscientists,

Paleoclimatology* is* the* study* of* ancient* climates,* and* changes* in* climatic*events,*through* geological* history* of* the* earth.*Paleoclimatic* records*are*preserved*in*glaciers,*lake*and*ocean*bottom sediments,*loess,*paleosols,* cave* deposits* and* some* geomorphological* structures.* Aquatic* biological proxies (diatoms, foraminiferas,* ostracods,* dinoflagellate* cysts,* corals),* terrestrial* biological* proxies* (tree* rings,* leaf* fossils,* palynomorphs-spore* and* pollen)* and* chemical* proxies* (isotope* analysis* * and* elemental* analysis)* are* used* to* reveal* paleoclimatic* data* from* these* records.* The* obtained* paleoclimatic* data* help* us* to* understand* past* climates,* to* explain* how* current* ecosystems* arose,* and* to* model* and* predict* the* future* climate* change* scenarios.

It* is* seen* from* previous* studies* that,* in* general,* the* hot* and* non-glacial* Devonian* climate* was* followed* by* globally* high* temperatures* of* Carboniferous,* a* period* characterised* by* tropical* rainforests.* The* relatively* cold* climate* at* the* beginning* of* Permian* was* followed* by* temperature* changes* between* Permian-Triassic,* even* reaching* hot* and* dry* conditions* to* allow* formation* of* characteristic* red-colored* sandstones* and* evaporites* of* Triassic.* Paleontological* and* sedimantological* data* showed* that* during* Triassic* the* poles* were* non-glacial* and,* tropical* and* subtropical* climatic* conditions* prevailed* in* the* Tethys* Sea* and* the* surrounding* terresrial* areas.* In* the* Early* Jurassic* the* global* increase* of* temperatutes* caused* drought* in* the* Pangea.* During* the* Cretaceous,* the* dominance* of* warm* and* humid* conditions* changed* to* a* global* cooling* and* drying* trend* in* the* Paleogene.* Although* periodically* interrupted* by* warm* periods* such* as* the* Paleocene-Eocene* Thermal* Maximum,* this* trend* continued* until* the* end* of* the* most* recent* glacial* period* of* the* current* ice* age,* when* temperatures* began* to* rise* again.

Paleoclimatology* Session* aims* to* discuss* the* climatic* changes* throughout* the* geological* history* of* earth* with* examples* from* Turkey* and* other* parts* of* the* world.* It’s* topic* is* the* presentation* of* paleoclimatic* data* obtained* from* high-resolution* paleontological* analysis,* isotopic* analysis,* elemental* analysis* and* the* discussion* of* geological* processes* affecting* the* paleoclimate* on* a* global* scale* obtained* by* stratigraphic* and* sedimentological* studies* in* this* context.

Your* original* works* are* very* valuable* to* make* more* accurate* future* predictions.* We* look* forward* to* your* participation.

27.* Paleontology* and* Stratigraphy

Cemal* Tunoğlu,* Sacit* Özer,* Güldemin* Darbaş

The* deep* time* of* the* Earth* hides* many* geological* events,* and* to* read* this* long* history* correctly,* the* layers* must* be* aged* correctly.* One* of* the* most* important* and* frequently* used* method* is* the* use* of* fossils.* Correlation* of* sedimentary* layers* can* accurately* be* done* by* using* fossils* which* helps* to* follow* geological* events* in* a* certain* order* and* to* understand* the* evolution* of* life.* Furthermore,* the* formation* of* new* continents* and* of* new* oceanic* rifts,* global* climate* events,* changes* in* fauna,* flora,* in* oceanic* currents* and* in* the* chemistry* of* ocean* water* as* well* as* mass* extinction* events* can* also* be* understood* with* fossils.* In* this* context,* we* would* like* you* to* participate* in* the* 74th* Turkish* Geological* Congress* “Paleontology* and* Stratigraphy* Session”* and* contribute* with* original* studies* on* biostratigraphy,* systematic* paleontology,* taxonomic* revision,* paleoecology* and* paleenvironment.

28.* Petroleum,* Natural* Gas,* and* Coal* Research

Ali* İhsan* Karayiğit,* İsmail* Bahtiyar,* Zühtü* Batı,* Selami* Toprak

Conventional* and* unconventional* hydrocarbons* and* coal* are* primary* fossil* fuels,* which* are* the* most* important* energy* resources* for* economic* development* of* the* countries.* In* this* session,* field,* basin* and* regional* scale* of* geological* and* geophysical* studies* about* exploration* and* production* of* oil,* gas* and* coal* in* Turkey* and* worldwide* will* be* discussed* in* detail.* We* aim* to* share* key* findings* about* new* fields,* evaluation* and* results* of* these* studies* with* geoscientists.* In* addition,* innovations* and* new* technologies* in* energy* sector* are* also* planned* to* be* discussed* in* this* session.

In* this* context,* studies* about* exploration,* production,* existence* and* estimated* resources* of* onshore* and* offshore* unconventional* hydrocarbons* in* different* basins* will* be* discussed* with* geoscience* community.* We* would* like* to* bring* studies* about* increasing* exploration* and* production* activities* up* for* discussion* especially* after* recent* major* natural* gas* discovery* in* offshore* Black* Sea.

Recent* geological* efforts* in* coal* exploration* studies* also* enable* to* identify* existence* of* new* coal* resources* in* Turkey.* The* new* findings* and* results* of* the* coal* geology* studies* that* integrate* geophysical* data* and* methods,* provides* an* important* impact* in* increasing* coal* reserves,* are* planned* to* be* discussed* in* this* session.

Moreover,* we* would* also* like* to* discuss* environmental* issues* and* awareness* about* exploration,* production* and* primary* use* of* fossil* fuels* as* a* primary* energy* source.

29.* Sedimentology* and* Sedimentological* Processes

Ulvi* Can* Ünlügenç,* Faruk* Ocakoğlu

Dear* colleagues,

We* hope* that* the* 74th Geological* Congress* of* Turkey* with* International* Participation* will* be* held* between* 11-15* April* 2022* in* Ankara* MTA* Conference* Halls,* within* the* scope* of* the* current* Covid* conditions,* face* to* face.* There* are* many* sessions* in* different* disciplines* about* earth* sciences* at* congress* and* we* will* be* honoured* to* see* you* among* us* during* the* “Sedimentology* and* Sedimentary* Processes”* session.

The* original* studies* in* our* country* and* the* world* * including* sedimentary* processes,* modelling,* provenance* determinations* and* stratigraphic* investigations* related* with* sedimentary* basin* development* will* be* presented* in* this* session* and* hereby,* an* ambiance* about* all* these* issues* will* be* provided* for* discussing,* understanding* and* interpreting* well* with* the* scientific* community.

We* are* expecting* to* your* contributions* with* abstracts* or* extended* full* text* about* your* original* and* recent* studies* to* this* internationally* qualified* Congress* which* continued* uninterruptedly* with* success* for* 74* years.* We* are* particularly* interested* in* this* congress* in* the* participation* of* young* and* dynamic* researchers* to* meet* with* experienced* scientists* and* to* do* collaborative* Works* together.

Hope* to* see* you* in* the* 74th* Turkish* Geological* Congress* with* International* Participants.

30.* Drilling* Methods* and* Technology*

Celalettin* Şimşek,* Mehmet* Ruhi* Akçıl

Drilling* technique* is* one* of* the* indispensable* methods* that* is* used* for* research* and* production* in* the* depths* of* the* earth.* Therefore,* there* are* several* types* of* drilling* methods* for* different* purposes.* We* look* forward* to* your* contributions* to* the* Drilling* Technology* Session* from* all* our* colleagues* and* academicians,* who* are* both* in* the* production* and* application* stages* in* the* drilling* industry,* in* terms* of* sharing* the* innovations* in* the* developing* drilling* industry* and* the* solutions* developed* for* the* problem* with* our* colleagues.* It* is* expected* the* presentation* subjects* are;* current* drilling* technologies* and* applications,* drilling* problems* and* solutions,* drilling* well* design* and* equipment,* well* tests,* well* development* methods,* in-situ* test* in* wells,* sampling* methods* and* evaluation,* selection* and* efficient* use* of* drilling* equipment,* occupational* health* and* safety* in* drilling,* properties* of* drilling* fluid* and* its* benefits* are* drilling* fluid* additives,* recording* drilling* data,* reporting* and* evaluation* of* data.

31.* Medical* Geology

Muzaffer* Metintaş,* Hayrullah* Yıldız,* Yüksel* Örgün* Tutay

From* the* first* contact* with* life,* humans* begin* to* come* into* contact* with* the* environment* (geological* environment)* in* natural* life,* and* their* biological* and* psychological* structure* is* affected* by* the* environment.* With* the* prolongation* of* the* average* life* span,* the* effects* of* mineralogical,* chemical* and* radioactive* properties* of* rocks,* soil* and* water* that* make* up* the* geological* environment* attract* more* and* more* attention,* and* many* research* results* are* published* in* parallel* with* its* intensity.* relationship.* The* main* health* problems* caused* by* the* elements* entering* the* body* in* the* rock-soil-water-plant-animal* food* chain* or* the* mineral* dusts* taken* into* the* body* by* direct* breathing* from* the* air* are* chronic* exposure* to* fluorine* and* arsenic* and* exposure* to* fibrous* mineral* dusts,* especially* asbestos* group* minerals.* The* relationship* between* respiratory* diseases* and* cancer* due* to* radon* gas,* which* is* the* most* important* component* of* natural* radioactivity,* is* another* important* example* of* the* interaction* between* the* environment* and* human* health.* In* the* "Medical* Geology"* sessions,* which* aim* to* reveal* the* impact* of* the* geological* environment* and* geological* materials* on* health* with* multidisciplinary* studies:* the* effect* of* water* resources* on* human* health,* the* effect* of* mineral* dusts* on* human* health,* natural* radioactivity-radon* and* health,* geological* environment* and* cancer,* geological* environment* and* immunity,* geological* It* is* aimed* to* comprehensively* address* issues* such* as* the* positive* effects* of* environments* on* health.* As* the* session* organizing* board;* Has* a* direct* or* indirect* interest/interest* in* “Medical* Geology”;* We* invite* researchers* who* have* studies* on* the* subject* in* geology,* environment,* biology,* chemistry,* medicine,* dentistry,* pharmacy* and* similar* fields* to* join* us* in* the* medical* geology* sessions* with* their* papers,* questions* and* comments* in* order* to* present* their* studies* and* to* have* the* opportunity* to* improve* their* studies* in* a* multidisciplinary* environment.

32. Remote Sensing and* Geographic Information* Systems

Kaan Şevki Kavak, Tolga Çan

Information technologies are related to the network, physical devices and relevant infrastructures for accessing, producing, processing, storing, protecting and modifying any data electronically. In recent years, remote sensing an d geographic information systems have been an indispensable component of info rmation technologies. Producing, evaluating and analysing the spatial data will also be anindispensable part of humanity in the future, which is used by all segments ofsociety, with o r without awareness. Remote sensing applications, whereartificial intelligence and machine learning meet with geology, which offervery important application opportunities in almost every field in recentyears, also draw attention and come in to play especially during the processingof images and querying of data.

Inaddition to applications such as Google Earth, which are widely used, the "MTA Geosciences Portal" developed by the General Directo rate of Mineral Research an d Explo ration in our country, the "HGM Sphere an dHGM Atlas" applications developed by the General Directorate of Maps and the "ATLAS" application developed by the General Directo rate of Geographical Info rmation Systems provide maps an d satellite images of publicinstitutions to Turkish researchers an d users free of charge. On theother hand, in accordance with the European Uni on Spa tial Data Infrastructure (INSPIRE) Directive, which is one of the international standards regarding the production and sharing of digital data, Turkish National Geographic Info rmation Systems (TUCBS) Infrastructure has been established in our country and Turkish Geology Data Stan dards have been prepared. The use of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems within the scope of "Natural Disasters”, which was determined as the main theme of the 74th Geological Congress of Turkey, has become advanced and indispensable tools integrated in to disaster risk management.

In this context, we consider that it is very important topresent and discuss your researches on earth sciences o r interdisciplinary researches including earth sciences, to share technical and scientific developments within the geological community in the session of geographic information systems and remote sensing of 74th Geological Congress of Turkey. Hoping for more widespread and useful communication and cooperation inscientific and technical terms, by bringing together researchers, engineers, company representatives, decision makers and students working in these fieldson the same platform, you are invited to be together in the 74th Geological Congress of Turkey.

33. Earth Sciences Education

Hükmü Orhan, Cüneyt Şen

Earth sciences education includes efforts to research, learn and teach the natural features of the Earth, such as geophysics, climatology - meteorology, hydrology, pedology, physical geography, geomorphology, oceanography, cartography, ecology, especially geology.

Our life and civilization depend on how we understand and manage our planet Earth. The Earth operating systems are capable of generating disasters killing millions of people and causing billions of dollars ofdamage. In order to survive with the least loss an d damage, it is very impo rtantto be aware of these natural resources and disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis,volcanic eruptions, global warming, decrease in freshwater resources, etc.) and to be a literate and responsible global citizen in Earth sciences.

Societies generally have very limited knowledge about the Earth from which they provide their life resources. The main reason for thisis that societies are not adequately trained in Earth sciences. Acquiring the importance of the Earth in the life of humans and other living things in preschool, primary and secondary education will help raise awareness and will solve many problems which societies may face such as climate change, natural disasters, energy, space science and natural resources.

Geosciences Departments, which have been in educational activities for almost a century, still have not been able to fully solve their structural and curriculum problems. Rapidly developing technology providesconvenience in solving geoscience problems, but the present Earth sciences education has difficulties in following these developments. It is important to discuss how our universities can adapt to rapidly changing conditions in their curricula and to provide the necessary information infrastructure.

In the Earth sciences education session, the participants are expected to give suggestions about how to make societies literate in Earth Sciences, to raise social awareness of many problems resulting from the Earth operating processes, to discuss the educational problems and solutions faced by the Earth Sciences departments operating in higher education.

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